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Charles Chilton Moore, Jr. (December 20, 1837 - February 7, 1906) was the grandson of Barton W. Stone. At one time he was a faithful gospel preacher. He preached for the Church of Christ at Versailles, Kentucky. After much trouble over the teachings of the Bible, he declared to the elders that he had become and infidel, and left the church. Among other issues, he reasoned that a study of geology showed the world to be much older that Usher's dating the age of the earth at 4000 B.C. This among other issues continued to move him further and further away from trusting in the God of the Bible. Over the course of the next few years he became a deist, then later an agnostic, then ultimately an atheist.

Moore was the editor of one of the nation's first journals promoting atheism, Blue Grass Blade. He received great rejections from theists and creationists. He spent numerous occasions in prison because of his outspoken attacks on the Bible and theology. His autobiography, Behind The Bars, was written while in prison for free-love articles appearing in his paper. In 1900, in the case of United States v. Moore, the District Court D., Kentucky, ruled that a publication to be prohibited from the mail system, it must be lewd and lascivious as well as obscene, and that it could not be banned because it offends the religious sentiments of the majority of the people by attacking the doctrine of the immaculate conception of Christ, even though worded in coarse or obscene language. The court went on to say that a publication must have a tendency to induce sexual immorality. Moore was one of the last men in America to be sent to prison for blasphemy. However, he was pardoned by President William McKinley.

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